The International Network for
Rational Use of Drugs (INRUD) was established in 1989 to design,
test, and disseminate effective strategies to improve the
way drugs are prescribed, dispensed, and used, with a particular
emphasis on resource poor countries. The network now comprises
22 groups, seven from Africa(Ghana, Ethiopia, Kenya, Nigeria,
Tanzania, Uganda and Zimbabwe), nine from Asia (Bangladesh,
Cambodia, China, India/Delhi, India/Tamil Nadu, Indonesia,
Nepal, Philippines and Thailand)and Latin America (Peru),
and other groups from the World Health Organization/Department
of Essential Drugs and Medicines Policy, the Harvard Medical
School Department of Ambulatory Care, the Karolinska Institute
in Sweden, the University of Newcastle in Australia, and a
secretariat based in Management Sciences for Health in the
United States.INRUD, Nepal a member of the network is registered
with the government since 1995. It has been involved in various
activities related to promoting rational drug use in Nepal.
It has carried out baseline
indicators in four districts,
safe dispensing and appropriate referral for diarrhoea,
ARI , and pregnancy by retail drug sellers in 12 districts,
drug use in 9 Terai districts
drug management study in 4 districts.
health seeking behaviour of
community and treatment practices of healthcare provider in
Sarlahi and Kanchanpur districts for Kala-azar and Malaria.
National Chest Hospital or National Hospital for Diseases of Respiratory System, National Tuberculosis Centre(NTC).
- pricing method and price of top selling eight medicine from Nepalese manufacturers.
It also carried out following
of training and supervision on prescribing practices –
randomized controlled intervention in 9 Terai districts,
training and supervision on dispensing practices-randomized
controlled intervention in 9 Terai districts,
of action-oriented training and audit-feedback on safe dispensing,
correct advice and appropriate referral by retail drug sellers
for diarrhoea, ARI, and pregnancy-randomized controlled
intervention in 12 districts,
strategies for implementing Standard Treatment Schedule
in improving use of drugs-randomized controlled intervention
in 9 districts,
and practices of retail drug sellers in three districts
from Kali Gandaki Valley for diarrohea, ARI, and pregnancy.
training private sector pharmacists/pharmacy personnel on diarrhoea treatment practices and usage of zinc in Nepal,
educating community members in improving use of medicines,
training private sector pharmacists and chemist on malaria diagnosis,treatment and prevention.
in field-testing of INRUD/WHO Rational Drug Use Indicators.
of sixteen national training courses on Rational Use of
Drugs at different regions of the country. Altogether 450
participants including medical doctors, public health officers,
paramedical health workers, health care manager from government
and non-government organization, and teachers from medical
colleges. Training courses on rational use of drugs conducted
in collaboration with government institutions, bilateral
and multilateral organizations and INGO including
Nepal Health Research Council, DHO (Ramechhap), DPHOs (Kailali
& Chitwan), UNICEF, RHDP/SDC, CBDM/HSSP/GTZ, PLAN International
of the training manuals for prescribers, dispensers, supervisors,
storekeepers and community health workers for use in the
Community Drug Programme(CDP/MOH/MLD/UNICEF,
development of training and trainers manuals for training on district,health post and sub health post level health workers on monitoring and supervisionfor drug use and management, DHS/MOHP
two international training courses on Promoting Rational Drug Use organized in Kathmandu.
The organization has published/disseminated
the findings from the activities in the national and international
journals and conferences. The national trainig course is organised
by raising course fee. The international course is also run
by the course fee from different organizations.